Umatilla, Walla Walla & Cayuse
Traditional Culture
  Who's Who
Since Time Immemorial
Homelands
All My Relations
Camp Life & Seasonal Round
Horses, Trade, & Travel
Cultural Continuity
References Cited

  Contemporary Culture
  Sovereignty & Tribal Government
Arts and Artists
Language
Education
Recommended Web Sites

  Relationship with U.S.
  Lewis & Clark and the Early Fur Trade
Establishment of Fort Nez Perces
Life at Ft. Walla Walla
Missionaries and Early Settlers
Making Treaties
The Shrinking Reservation
References Cited

 
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Eric Broncheau
Photo courtesy of The
Confederated Umatilla Journal.
 
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Umatilla Indians fishing at Celilo Falls, on the Columbia River.
Photo was taken by Colby Clarence in 1956 or 1957, before the Dalles Dam was built.
Courtesy of University of Washington Libraries, Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture; L95-66.1
 

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Arrogance of Lewis and Clark
Bobbie Conner
 

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The consequence of Lewis and Clark.
Bobbie Conner

Umatilla River > Culture > Cultural Continuity
Elders
 
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Petowya, Cayuse woman who saw Lewis and Clark in 1806, when she was 15 years old. She lived to be 111 years old, and passed away in 1902.
Photo courtesy University of Montana, Mansfield Library Photo Archives (Elrod collection #81-450). Photo taken by Morton J. Elrod.

"Those people respect the aged with veneration, I observed an old woman in one of the Lodges which I entered She was entirely blind as I was informed by Signs, had lived more than 100 win­ters, She occupied the best position in the house, and when She Spoke great attention was paid to what She Said"

-Wm. Clark, October 17, 1805


 
Fishing
   

The following text is from an exhibit at Tamástslikt Cultural Institute:

"The Law of the Salmon - Our ancient laws say that when the human and natural world are in conflict the living beings of the earth will begin to fade. Water was sacred and precious.

"The Natítayt believed that every stream, river, and lake sustained the ecological balance of the land. Of all the water life, salmon was the most important. In trade, salmon strengthened the relations among the people. In ceremony, salmon unified The People in life renewal.

"The Natítayt (The People) believed that a protective spirit governed the animal world. In reverence, our hunters ritually cleansed themselves many days before the hunt. In this way, a hunter lived a clean and humane life. Our survival required a close relationship with the animal world. Rabbits, deer, antelope, elk, bear, bighorn sheep, and buffalo gave our people essential food, clothing, and raw material for tools" (TCI).

 





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From Left to Right:
Walter Broncheau, Joe Ball, Chuck Jones, Mike Jones, Mitch Pond, Rob Quaempts.
Courtesy of The Confederated Umatilla Journal.


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Left: unidentified
Right: Damon McKay

Courtesy of Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.
Stick Game

"The journals of the expedition comprehensively document our fishing practices, our numerous tule mat lodge villages, our vast horse herds, and our games of chance and skill. We have used games and gambling to redistribute wealth for centuries if not millennia. There is an uninterrupted continuum present in the mid-Columbia region in our culture and people" (Conner: 2001).

 

Umatilla tribal members' modern hand game demonstration teaches the rudiments of a game documented in the Lewis and Clark expedition journals.


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Courtesy of the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.


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Courtesy of the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.


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Courtesy of the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.


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Hand bone or stick games have been a means of redistributing wealth in the
Columbia Plateau for millenia.
Maj. Lee Moorhouse. PH 36, Special Collections & University Archives, University of Oregon, M5124.

 

Tule Gathering
   
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Courtesy of Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.

These three things are still part of the community today, evidence that cultural continuity is strong.

   
Background: Limited edition Cayuse blanket, created by the Pendleton Woolen Mills, Pendleton, Oregon, in conjunction with Tamástslikt Cultural Institute.